A grammar of the Adamawa dialect of the Fulani language. London, Oxford C. Thom, Derrick J. The morphology of Maradi, Niger. African Urban Notes Michigan State , Thompson, Virginia. Trimingham, J. The influence of Islam upon Africa.
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New York: Praeger. Vanderaa, Larry. Fulfulde grammar. Weekes, Richard V. Muslim peoples: A world ethnographic survey. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Wenek, Sophie.
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In Sciences et voyages, Wilson, Wendy. Resource management in a stratified Fulani community. Haward University. Expelled from Gobir by his former student Yunfa in , Islamic reformer Usman dan Fodio assembled a Fulani army to lead in jihad against the Hausa kingdoms of the north. Realizing the threat that Usman's forces posed, Yunfa assembled the other Hausa rulers to oppose him.
The Hausa rulers dealt the jihadists a number of initial setbacks, most notably at the Battle of Tsuntua December , in which Usman lost more than 2, men, of whom are said to have known the Koran by heart. The following year, however, Usman's forces seized Kebbi and established a permanent base at Gwandu. Building on popular discontent caused in part by famine and by Hausa taxation, the jihadists continued to advance, taking the Gobir's capital Alkalawa in and killing Yunfa. Usman united the conquered lands under his Fulani Empire.
Fula jihads From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Fula or Fulani jihads, were a series of independent but loosely connected events across West Africa between the late 17th century and European colonization, in which Muslim Fulas took control of various parts of the region. It is also sometimes referred to as "Fulani revolution. The rulers often assumed honorific titles such as in the Fulani Empire, Emir, an Arabic title which can mean general as well as prince or governor, or a derivate in a local language. These states are listed in rough chronological order below. Fuuta Jalon Main article: Kingdom of Fouta Djallon The Fouta Djallon located mainly in present day Guinea as well as parts of Guinea Bissau, Senegal, Sierra Leone was a major state with a written constitution and ruling alternance between the 2 main parties: the Soriya and the Alphaya.
The Fouta Djallon state was born in when Fulani Muslims decided to rise against the non-Muslim Fulanis and Djalonkes rulers to create a confederation of provinces. The following Islamic revolution created the new kingdom of Fuuta Tooro under a government called the Almamate a term derived from the Pulaar borrowing of the Arabic al-imaam. Before formal colonization this state was weakened by French incursions and the effort by El Hadj Umar Tall to carry his jihad eastward see also Toucouleur Empire, below.
Fulani Empire Main article: Sokoto Caliphate At the beginning of the 19th century under Usman dan Fodio the Fulani became the leaders of a centralized Fulani Empire which continued until when the Fulani were divided up among European colonizers.
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Most of these states were in colonial times brought into the British Northern Nigeria Protectorate around Inspired by the recent Muslim uprisings of Usman dan Fodio in nearby Hausaland, preacher and social reformer Seku Amadu led a Fula army in jihad against the Bambara Empire. It was eventually defeated by Umar Tall and incorporated into the Toucouleur Empire. The Toucouleur controlled the region until French colonization, at which time the last leader of the state, Ahmadu Tall, fled to Sokoto.
The haplogroups of Western Eurasian origin, such as J1b, U5, H, and V, were also detected but in rather low frequencies 8. As in African hunter-gatherers Pygmies and Khoisan and some populations from central Tunisia Kesra and Zriba , three of the Fulani nomad samples do not reveal significant negative values of Fu's selective neutrality test.
The only group of nomadic Fulani that manifests some similarities with geographically related agricultural populations from Guinea-Bissau and Nigeria comes from Tcheboua in northern Cameroon. The Fulani also known as the Foulah, Peulh, Peul, Fulfulde, or Fulbe are an ethnic group of sub-Saharan Africa who live in 17 states and number almost 30 million people.
Although most Fulani now live settled lives, they spring from an originally nomadic population. Both the settled and nomadic communities are collaborating. The settled communities cultivate the cereals mainly sorghum and raise a small number of domestic animals; the activities of the pastoral groups are concerned almost exclusively with animal husbandry. It must be stressed that cattle keeping is really the central point of cultural identity of all Fulani nomads.
Because of the specific needs of this practice, more pronounced division of labor, resulting in longer time separation of the husband and wife, is encountered in Fulani society. Males deal with the pasture, and females sell milk and milk products in town markets. Nomadic Fulani are known from almost all localities of the West African savanna and the Chad basin. Archeological indicators date the origin of this nomadic population, on the basis of the rock art of the central Sahara, to about 5, years ago Dupuy ; some indicators even suggest a Neolithic origin of the Fulani population Ba and Dieterlen Some Fulani groups settled to form a number of important states: the kingdom of Tekrur on the lower Senegal River in the 11th century, the Massina Empire on the middle Niger in the 15th century, and the Sokoto Empire in the 19th century in northern and eastern central Nigeria.
The modern Fulani, who live in sub-Saharan Africa between the Sahara and the tropical rain forests, can be divided into the settled Fulani 15 million people and the nomadic Fulani up to 13 million people , sometimes called the M'Bororo or Bororo or the Wodaabe. The nomadic Fulani live in the African middle savanna belt, from eastern Senegal to the Central African Republic, and are the most numerous nomadic group in this area.
Linguistically, both Fulani groups the herders and the agriculturalists belong to the Atlantic branch of the Niger-Congo language family Ruhlen Fulani nomads remain detached from the settled Fulani. Over the course of the year they practice seasonal migration; in the rainy season they move with their herds to the north, and in the dry season they return to the south. The northsouth line varies by tribe and family but is generally about km long Dupire In addition to these seasonal movements, there is largescale migration, by which the nomadic Fulani have spread across the West African savanna and the Chad basin Mohammadou From an anthropological perspective the Fulani are rather heterogeneous; they show similarities to other sub-Saharan populations, but some characteristics-such as pale skin, a long, straight nose, and thin lips-link them to North African groups.
In the s it was assumed that the Fulani had migrated into the Lake Chad region and further into the West African savanna from East Africa, and even Egyptian and Near Eastern origins were proposed Tauxier ; on the basis of the Rh system, however, it has been possible to link these populations to West African groups Excoffier et al. From the phylogenetic point of view the mtDNA sequences from subSaharan Africa have been classified into L-type haplogroups Chen et al. About 30 sub-Saharan Ltype haplogroups have been identified, and their ethnic or geographic origins and coalescence times have recently been summarized Salas et al.
It seems that the main diversifications originated in East Africa but that the West African regions also contributed to the recent, wide mtDNA diversity. The nomadic Fulani have not been studied with regard to mtDNA so far. Close relationships to the neighboring settled populations of West Africa the Tuareg, Kanuri, Hausa, Songhai, Yoruba, and Mandenka have been confirmed by other studies [e.
This Fulani group cannot be separated from the other populations, even by the indexes of molecular diversity Pereira et al. Rosa et al. Their haplogroup profile shows high proportions of haplogroups L1b, L2a, and L3b in particular, although a few Eurasian haplogroups were also found among them. There are four questions that we seek to answer: 1 What is the mtDNA profile of the sample-does it include haplogroups of East or of West African origin? Materials and Methods Sampling. Biological samples buccal swabs were collected from Fulani nomads at different places within their geographic range across the Chad basin and the West African savanna.
Camps were visited during the dry seasons January-February , when the nomads rested at the southern extremity of their lines of migration. The only exception is the sample from Tcheboua Cameroon , where the Fulani have recently settled. All possible measures were taken to avoid sampling individuals with a known common maternal ancestor. The samples were secured under conditions of informed consent, and with the authorization of the ministries of education of the countries concerned.
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Laboratory Methods. Samples that contained length heteroplasmy a homopolymeric tract of cytosines between positions and were also sequenced with the reverse primer R Data Analysis.
The sequences were aligned using DNA Alignment 1. Fluxus Technology Ltd. Each sequence was compared to the Cambridge Reference Sequence between nucleotide positions np and Andrews et al.
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Individual haplotypes were ranked into haplogroups according to the published phylogenetic literature Watson et al. Gene diversity, nucleotide diversity, and the average number of pairwise differences were calculated using Arlequin 2. Irregularities in the distribution of the average number of pairwise differences were tested using the raggedness index Harpending , which gives higher values for stable populations and lower values for expanding populations.