Lost Souls of the Dead and Dying

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While this may not have been possible as the Pakistan Army would have fully joined in the fight, large tracts of territory in the Skardu region, Domel, Tithwal and Poonch areas could have been reclaimed by the Indian Army during a spring offensive in , following which India may have accepted the ceasefire after getting assurances of further withdrawal from occupied territories.

India's wars - Telegraph

Importantly, Shaksgam Valley would never have been ceded to China. All senior commanders of the time felt that had India stalled the ceasefire and built up forces for a spring offensive in , the map of Jammu and Kashmir would have been significantly different today. The war with Pakistan showcased a remarkably refreshing emerging ethos of the Indian Armed Forces: an ethos that transcended its colonial legacy and showcased its secular, multi-cultural and multi-ethnic flavor.

A Sikh regiment was the first to be rushed in to defend a Muslim-majority province. Lt David, who charged in from the rear in his Daimler Armoured Car of 7 Cavalry and caused mayhem amongst the tribals at Shalateng, was a Christian. Major Maurice Cohen, the young Signals officer who took part in the various battles that were fought in the Poonch sector, was a Jew.

Mehar Singh was a fiery Sikh; Mickey Blake, the dashing flight commander of one of the Tempest squadrons who made all those daring forays over Skardu, was among the many Anglo-Indians who were decorated for their exploits in combat; Minoo Engineer, the Officer Commanding of 1 Wing Srinagar was a Parsi; and, best of all, the engineer regiment that built the track to Zozila in freezing temperature was a company from the Madras Engineering Regiment under the command of Major Thangaraju.

In fact there was a strong sentiment to do away with the Army. Our policy is ahimsa [non-violence]. We foresee no military threats. Scrap the Army! The police is good enough to meet our security needs.

India stripped Kashmir of autonomy to end separatism, Modi says

Training was not a factor that seemed to matter. The War is a sombre saga of ineptitude at all levels, lack of preparation, poor leadership, adhocism and neglect of the Army by the powers that be resulting from the political paranoia of a military coup which obsessed the then Prime Minister Nehru. It was a quaint situation where the Army received its orders to go to a major war through the media!! Ineptitude in handling of an adverse situation was the hall mark of this war.

Kashmir: Why India and Pakistan fight over it

At the cutting edge, however, courage and bravery were never found wanting. Unfortunately, battalions, companies and platoons were abandoned by the higher headquarters, without any means of communication, with a seriously depleted of stocks of ammunition, rations and equipment. They could not hold out long under such circumstances. The rout was morale sapping and a huge humiliating defeat was writ large. There was a continuous ongoing exchange of demarches by both governments, unfortunately, for a second time in just over a decade, the Army was kept out of the national decision making loop.

Even as the situation on ground became more charged the Army was not ordered to prepare for war. When finally the matters got out of hand the way the Army was ordered to evict the Chinese from Indian territory. The unfolding scenario was brazen to say the least. The Prime Ministers continued to dominate the decision making and functioned as a single point control. The defences were hastily prepared with trenches having no overhead protection, no barbed wire protection or anti personnel mines laid around the localities.

India Pak Wars: 1947 - 1999

With the local porters having deserted and no Pioneers available, even the tasks of collecting para-dropped stores and lugging these to the defences also fell on the fighting soldier. The platoon and company locations were decided on inaccurate maps in the corridors of Army Headquarters so far removed from the battle front.

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Consequently the positions selected had no tactical relevance to the existing terrain. The abject failure of higher leadership in abdicating their onerous moral responsibility of exemplary and inspirational leadership at the Brigade and Division was most demoralising for the troops who were prepared to stand their ground with what they had. These forces were under the Ministry of External Affairs and were not in the chain of command of the Army formations inducted.

An uncoordinated response is wasteful in all types of resources.

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This dual control is operationally unsuitable. The Chinese had made elaborate preparations for the conflict. They stocked up 40 days reserves for the Divisions.

But before he could subdue Scotland into a dutiful territory, Edward I died and left his son in charge of a divided England. With a now weakened opponent, Robert the Bruce rose again from his initial loss for kingship to finally secure Scottish independence at the Battle of Bannockburn in In France invaded Spain in an attempt to take control of the Iberian peninsula.

The Spanish government, colonists believed, allowed injustice to the poor and discrimination against Native Americans and mestizos, or people of mixed ancestry. But, for some unknown reason, Hidalgo retreated, and the rebellion ended in failure. For years afterward, revolution bubbled in small areas around New Spain. The two warring factions of Mexican royalists and rebels left the colony at a stalemate. However, in Spain instituted a liberal government that lessened the role of the Catholic church and the royal nobility, which threatened the power of the royalist elites.

In order to maintain their power and the status quo, royalist forces began to fight alongside the rebels, eventually securing the independence of Mexico on September 27, After securing independence, Mexico gained control of the region known as Texas. Looking to advance the new country, the Mexican government instituted low tariffs and an open immigration policy to entice American settlers to the territory.

However, the deal came with a few conditions: settlers were required to convert to Catholicism and become Mexican citizens, and there was to be no slavery. By American settlers in Texas far outnumbered Mexican citizens, but they refused to become Mexican citizens themselves. Feeling like the Americans were taking advantage of their generosity, the Mexican government reinstated higher taxes and put a stop to immigration.

These restrictions angered the American settlers, who then wanted Texas to be its own republic, and sparked small conflicts between the opposing groups. Houston was able to capture Santa Anna and force him to sign the Treaties of Velasco, securing Texan independence. The slaves and citizens in the French colony of Saint-Domingue now known as Haiti wondered just that.